(Nairobi Kenya. Photo courtesy)
Six stories, six interesting Kenyan stories that is why are all Kenyans “from Israel?,” How and why Kenya’s Nandi Resistance was quelled, We Kenyans should not be too hard on ourselves, Where some Kenyans emigrated from in ancient times, How Jomo Kenyatta got his names, and how Kenyans and Tanzanians helped prop up Apartheid South Africa – see below;
Just about every Kenyan ethnicity/Kenyan community (i.e. the legendary Prof. Ngugi wa Thiong’o strongly objects to the use of the word tribe), without any apparent exception, lays claim to having “originated” from ancient Israel, and we all also claim similarities in our different languages with Hebrew, which is odd and very suspicious i.e. we are clearly all so eager and so desperate to be labeled among “the chosen children of God” i.e. Israelis and/or Jews. All of us are children of God regardless of our origin, our race, our gendar, our ethnicity, where we are from or where we live. That Jews and/or Israelis are “the chosen children of God” is mere propaganda and cult worship, and if it is stated so in the Holy Scriptures, it must have been one of those verses artificially inserted into the Holy Scriptures in the olden days by Pharisees and Sadducees i.e. one of those artificial “Constitutional Amendments” by the “Jewish African National Union (JANU)” of centuries gone by. There is nothing special about Jews and/or Israelis, they are Human Beings like the rest of us, and they are also currently in lockdown and wearing face masks like the rest of us. For example, if Israelis were “one rank above” all other Human Beings, including Kenyans, there would be no need for them to currently be in face masks or lockdown because of their “superior immunity” and/or their “superior levels of health.” The cult worship by Kenyans of Israel and/or Jews really needs to immediately come to an end.
Why and how Kenya’s epic Nandi Resistance of 1895 to 1905 had to be quelled:
Kenya’s epic Nandi Resistance of 1895 to 1905 drew to a close on 19th October 1905 when it’s leader, the legendary Koitalel arap Samoei was assassinated in cold blood by Col. Richard Meinertzhagen. Koitalel was supposed to be attending a peace meeting with the British but was instead shot dead on the spot by Col. Meinertzhagen in cold blood. What changed tables on the epic Nandi Resistance of 1895 to 1905 was the completion of the Kenya – Uganda Railway Line in 1901 and pressure on the British Government thereafter to begin repaying loans the British Government had taken to construct the Kenya – Uganda Railway Line.
From about 1885 to 1905, what we know today as Kenya was administered by the Imperial British East Africa Company (I.B.E.A.), which was actually a front for Queen Victoria and the British Crown then, but which nevertheless had limited resources & capacity i.e. I.B.E.A. Kenya at the time was known as the East Africa Protectorate.
The Kenya – Uganda Railway Line, described at the time as the most expensive project in history, is completed in 1901. If the British had the money, it appears that they would have extended the Kenya – Uganda Railway Line all the way to West Africa and the Atlantic Ocean i.e. the British were just that ambitious regarding expansionism in Africa.
As mentioned, the institutions and banks that loaned the British Government the money to build the Kenya – Uganda Railway Line began putting pressure on the British to begin repaying back the borrowings taken to construct the Kenya – Uganda Railway Line.
But the Nandi and the Nandi Resistance were standing in the way of things and British plans to establish large scale commercial farming in the Nandi Highlands as a way for the Kenya – Uganda Railway Line to begin repaying back it’s construction.
A decision was therefore hurriedly made to transfer administration and management of the East Africa Protectorate from I.B.E.A. and the British Foreign Office to the British Colonial Office i.e. make what we know today as Kenya into a semi-formal British colony i.e. change the status from that of being a Protectorate to that of being a British “possession.” This also came with a change of name from the East Africa Protectorate to British East Africa in 1905.
This now enabled the British Government to intervene more directly in Kenya’s affairs i.e. the British tax payer was now involved in the running and governing of what we today know as Kenya e.g. the British Parliament approved the assembly of 3,000 troops from the Kings African Rifles (KAR) based in Kenya, Sudan, Malawi and Rhodesia (today Zambia and Zimbabwe), under the command of the notorious Col. Richard Meinertzhagen mentioned above, to go quell the Nandi Resistance. Had this not happened, the best the I.B.E.A. Company could have done is hire mercenaries to quell the Nandi Resistance.
It appears that Koitalel knew of the presence of the 3,000 troops and knew he was walking into a trap, but nevertheless considered it the better of two options, the better of “two evils” i.e. save a bloodbath against the Nandi, because Meinertzhagen and his 3,000 troops would have moved in.
Even today in the year 2020, locals will be able to immediately detect 3,000 troops moving around any corner of Kenya. How can such an activity escape the attention of anyone or any location in the world, let alone Kenya?
Kenya formally became a British Colony in 1920, and the rest as is said, is history.
We Kenyans should not be complacent, though at the same time, we should not be too hard on ourselves i.e. the cases of Kenya, the United States of America (USA), and Britain:
The USA is born 4th July 1776 i.e. the USA is 243 years old, and Kenya is born 12th December 1963 i.e. Kenya is 56 years old. The USA is therefore just under 187 years older than Kenya but the USA is still just as heavily divided as Kenya i.e. the sharp divides in the USA were brought out clearly by the USA elections of the years 2000, 2004 and 2016.
Britain is much older than both Kenya and the USA i.e. Britain comes into being in the year 1536 i.e. 484 years ago i.e. Britain is 484 years old yet the BREXIT vote to quit the European Union (EU) of 2016 revealed a Britain just as sharply divided as both Kenya and the United States of America.
America is currently burning in certain parts, just like in 1992, 1967 and 1943 i.e. their version of Kenya’s “Post Election Violence” of the years 2007 and 2008, and for 6 days in England in the year 2011 i.e. 6th to 11th August 2011, England similarly went up in flames i.e. England’s version too of Kenya’s “Post Eection Violence” of the years 2007 and 2008.
One could correctly argue that the ongoing riots in America and those too of 1992, 1967 and 1943 mainly feature and featured African-Americans and mainly revolve and revolved around heavy African-American discontent but what about the said riots in England of 2011…? The England riots of 2011 involved all of England’s heavily multi-cultural demographics, all of England’s heavily diverse ethnicities and Nationalities, but the Caucasian demographic clearly stood out and featured in 2011 i.e. angry and enraged Whites, angry and enraged Caucasians, angry and enraged Anglo-Saxons. Anger like love, knows no boundaries, and Capitalism and it’s heavy failings have made us all angry globally. Let us also not forget the heavy discontent in Britain of the 1970s and 1980s, where White anger stood out more than the anger of Britain’s other races. Global society in general right now is angry i.e. Global society in general right now is sitting on a ticking time bomb.
We are all interestingly the same globally right now actually regardless of race, ethnicity or nationality i.e. those who are 56 years old, those who are 243 years old, those who are 484 years old, or otherwise i.e. all in lockdown, all wearing face masks and all in desperation, so we Kenyans should not be too hard on ourselves i.e. the global society of our times in entirety is in shambles.
But for now, we Kenyans should stop being too hard on ourselves i.e. if it was only us in shambles and face masks right now globally, then yes, it would be deserved that we be too hard on ourselves. Let’s be hard on ourselves yes, but not too hard.
Some legends below on the origins of at least eight of Kenya’s tribes:
1. The legend goes that the Maasai, Luo & Kalenjin of Kenya were once a single community. This was about 4,000 years ago. The legend goes that the Maa, Luo & Kalenjin (i.e. about 4,000 years ago), were an elite military unit for the Pharaoh in Egypt i.e. an elite military unit similar to the US Navy Seals and/or the now legendary Seal Team 6, which spectacularly killed Abu Abdullah Osama Mohammed bin Laden in May 2011.
The legend goes that there was a bitter disagreement between Pharaoh and his elite military unit comprising the Maa, Luo & Kalenjin, and his elite guard migrated away from Egypt to Sudan, where they settled at Bahr el Ghazal in Sudan.
The Maa, Luo & Kalenjin settled & stayed in Bahr el Ghazal for about 2,000 years.
Then about 2,000 years ago, the Maa, Luo & Kalenjin migrated further southwards to what we know today as Kenya, specifically Western Kenya.
From here, the legend goes that there were bitter internal disagreements between the Maa, Luo & Kalenjin. This was about 1,000 years ago.
As a result, the Maa, Luo & Kalenjin split up into three sub-tribes/clans and parted ways, broadly forming what we today know as the the Maa of Kenya & Tanzania (i.e. Plain Nilotes), the Luo of Kenya (i.e. River-Lake Nilotes), and the Kalenjin of Kenya (i.e. Highland Nilotes);
2. The Somalis of Kenya and Somalia appear to have descended from Abyssinia i.e. the ancient Ethiopian Kingdom. Abyssinia was a melting pot of races, cultures and ethnicities e.g. the Ethiopians and Somalis themselves, Romans and Arabs from Egypt in North Africa, Black Africans from Sudan, and Jews from the Middle East i.e. the famed marriage of Queen Sheba of Abyssinia/Ethiopia to King Solomon of the Jews. Legend has it that Somali men and women, and Ethiopian men and women, can be strikingly handsome and beautiful because of the melting pot of races, cultures and ethnicities that ancient Abyssinia was e.g. the Ethiopians and Somalis themselves, Romans and Arabs from Egypt in North Africa, Black Africans from Sudan, and Jews from the Middle East i.e. the intermarriages between the different races, cultures and ethnicities in ancient Abyssinia gave rise to descendants with different composite genes, hence a high incidence of strikingly handsome men and strikingly beautiful women;
3. Kenya’s Merus are said to have migrated from neighbouring Tanzania, and there is indeed a Mt. Meru in Tanzania. Current Tanzanian President Dr. John Joseph Pombe Magufuli is even said to have distant relatives amongst Kenya’s Merus, hence his fondness for Kenya’s Meru tribe;
4. Kenya’s Abaluhya community is said to have migrated from Sudan about 2,000 years ago;
5. Kenya’s Akamba community is said to have migrated from the Democratic Republic of Congo about 2,000 years ago;
6. Kenya’s Kikuyu community is also said to have migrated from the Democratic Republic of Congo about 2,000 years ago.
How Jomo Kenyatta changed from being Kamau wa Muigai, to Kamau wa Ngengi, to Johnstone Kamau wa Ngengi, to Johnstone Kenyatta, and finally, to Jomo Kenyatta:
Jomo Kenyatta was born Kamau wa Muigai (Kamau son of Muigai) around the year 1896. His father was Muigai and his mother was Wambui. His paternal grandfather was Kung’u, a Medicine Man (“Mundu Mugo”). As a matter of fact, Jeremy Murray Brown in his biography “Kenyatta,” writes that Jomo Kenyatta picked up his elegant sense of fashion and sharp sense of dress from his paternal grandfather Kung’u, who was an elegant and sharp dresser. Jomo’s paternal grandmother was Mosana, a Maasai lady, and Jomo was indeed fluent in Maa. Jomo’s paternal great grandfather was Magana.
Jomo had three brothers i.e. Kung’u, Kuria and James Muigai wa Ngengi. It is believed that Jomo’s brother Kung’u passed away during World War I i.e. between 1914 and 1918, while working as a porter for British troops fighting against the Germans in neighbouring Tanzania. Tanzania was known then as German East Africa. James Muigai wa Ngengi passed away in 1994, though it is not known what became of Kuria.
Jomo’s father Muigai passed away when he was young, and he was inherited by his uncle Ngengi, becoming Kamau wa Ngengi. He was baptised in 1914, becoming Johnstone Kamau wa Ngengi. Jomo regularly visited his Maa relatives in Narok i.e. his Maa relatives via his paternal grandmother Mosana, and Jomo infact took refuge in Narok from 1914 to 1918 i.e. during World War I, to avoid being recruited as a porter for the Carrier Corps like his brother Kung’u above. Conditions for Blacks in the Carrier Corps were indeed atrocious i.e. you either died from being overworked, illness, wild animals, or all three. Nairobi’s Kariokor area is where the Carrier Corps were based during World War I between 1914 and 1918, and Kariokor is actually a word derived from Carrier Corps.
For some reason during his stay in Narok of 1914 to 1918, Jomo developed a fascination with the beaded Maasai belt “Kinyatta”, so much so, that around the year 1921, he dropped his 2nd & 3rd names, and became Johnstone Kenyatta.
Actually, President Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, his two sisters and his brother, may be more Maa than they are Kikuyu i.e. Jomo Kenyatta, their father, had Maa blood, and their mother Ngina also has Maa blood i.e. Ngina’s mother, their maternal grandmother, was known as Nyokabi, a semi-Kikuyu, semi-Maa name. There was heavy intermarriage between Kikuyus and Maasais from about 1850 to about 1930. For example, Dr. Jason Likimani, who was the first indigenous Kenyan Medical Doctor by way of the Diploma in Medicine he attained in 1939, was half-Maa and half-Kikuyu. There are still inter-marriages between the Maa and Kikuyu, but not as much as in the olden days.
In 1938, while in the United Kingdom and studying Anthropology at the prestigious London School of Economics (LSE), Johnstone Kenyatta was due to present his thesis towards his attainment of a Diploma in Anthropology. Johnstone’s Kenyatta’s supervisor at the London School of Economics was the legendary Prof. Bronislaw Malinowiski, a renowned and respected Anthropologist in those times, sort of like the Bill Gates of Anthropology in those days, and it was under the supervision of Prof. Malinowiski that Johnstone Kenyatta prepared his thesis i.e. the 1938 book “Facing Mt. Kenya” on Kikuyu Customary Law.
However, Johnstone Kenyatta was made aware of the fact that he would appear on the cover of his thesis/book “Facing Mt. Kenya” in Kikuyu Customary Attire which would have been regarded as a mismatch and inauthentic in those days because little was known of Africa and Africans at the time (little still is actually), and the little that was known then was of a people and a continent that was still in rudimentary stages of development, with different lifestyles from Anglo-Saxon lifestyles, meaning therefore, that Johnstone Kenyatta would have needed to present himself and his book/thesis in as raw and as authentic an African manner as possible, by dispensing with the Anglicisation to his names, by further Africanising his names. It is at this point in 1938, that he dropped Johnstone and became Jomo Kenyatta. Some accounts say that it was Johnstone Kenyatta’s brother-in-law, Mbiyu Koinange, who was in London at the time, who advised that that Johnstone Kenyatta further Africanise his name, though it appears more likely that this advise came from Johnstone Kenyatta’s supervisor at the London School of Economics, the legendary Prof. Bronislaw Malinowiski, who was quite a shrewd “marketeer and salesman” apart from being a renowned academic.
Multiple generations of Kenyan primary school pupils, between around the years 1965 and 1982, were taught in primary level school Civics that the name Jomo was a combination of the names Johnstone Kamau wa Ngengi. However, Jomo may not be so much a combination of the names Johnstone Kamau wa Ngengi, as it is one of the names Johnstone Muigai. Why?
Clearly Jomo valued his biological father Muigai, more than he did his stepfather Ngengi i.e. his first son with his first wife Grace Wahu was Peter Muigai Kenyatta (1920 -1979). His son with his British wife Edna Grace Clarke is Peter Magana Kenyatta. Magana was Jomo Kenyatta’s great-grandfather i.e. President Uhuru Kenyatta’s great great grandfather, and one could assume that Jomo Kenyatta gave his son with Edna Grace Clarke the name Magana because Magana was born in Britain in 1943 during Jomo Kenyatta’s 15 year stay in Europe of 1931 to 1946 i.e. Magana was born in a distant land to a White woman, a White woman who was also distant in a symbolic sense i.e. she was White and from another land/continent and Jomo Kenyatta was Black and from another land/continent.
Going by Kikuyu Customary Law, Peter Magana Kenyatta should have been named after his paternal grandfather Muigai or his paternal step-grandfather Ngengi, not after his paternal great great grandfather Magana, hence the assumption that Jomo Kenyatta put the generational distance in naming, owing to the fact that Magana was born in “a distant land” to “a distant woman”. However an authority on Kikuyu Customary Law can clarify why specifically Jomo Kenyatta, in line with Kikuyu Customary Law, chose to name his son with Edna Grace Clarke, Magana.
Jomo Kenyatta did not have a son with his third wife Grace Wanjiku, and with his fourth wife Ngina, his first born son is Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, not Uhuru Ngengi Kenyatta. Jomo’s first son with his first wife Grace Wahu, as mentioned, was Peter Muigai Kenyatta, not Peter Ngengi Kenyatta, and his son with his second wife Edna Grace Clarke, as also mentioned, is Peter Magana Kenyatta, and not either Peter Muigai Kenyatta or Peter Ngengi Kenyatta.
Clearly Jomo Kenyatta, did not quite hold his step-father Ngengi in high regard, because if he did, he would have at least named one of his sons Ngengi, which is why by extension, one could conclude that Jomo is actually a combination of the names Johnstone Muigai, rather than a combination of the names Johnstone Kamau wa Ngengi.
Jomo was also not a church goer, like Kenya’s 2nd, 3rd and 4th Presidents i.e. Jomo only went to Church when he “couldn’t avoid it” e.g. during weddings and funerals, though Jomo Kenyatta must have kept an Anglo-Saxon component to his names (i.e. Jo in Jomo is for Johnstone), as a tribute and appreciation to the missionaries who trained him at the Church Missionaries of Scotland (CMS) mission at Thogoto, Kiambu, around the years 1911 to 1913, training that enabled him become the founding Prime Minister and founding President of Kenya.
And in the same breath, Jomo’s loyalties firmly remained with his biological mother Wambui i.e. his three first born daughters have the name Wambui i.e. Amb. Margaret Wambui Kenyatta (RIP), Jennifer Wambui Kenyatta and Christina Wambui Kenyatta-Pratt. Jomo did not have a daughter with his British wife Edna Grace Clarke, though if he did, it would have been interesting to note what name he would have given her i.e. the name of her paternal grandmother, or the name of her paternal great great grandmother, as in Magana’s case.
Apartheid South Africa, Britain, the United States of America, and how we here in Kenya and Tanganyika/Tanzania, helped prop up Apartheid South Africa from 1948 to 1994:
Many of us here in East Africa, claim to “love” Nelson Mandela, and in the same breath, claim to have a “passionate dislike” for Queen Elizabeth II of Britain, on time British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, and one time US President Ronald Reagan, which does not make sense, because millions of Kenyans benefited from the huge sums of money pumped into Kenya by the Americans and the British in the 1960s, the 1970s & the 1980s, that enabled major investments, major projects and progress in diverse sectors in Kenya.
When the likes of Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Reginald Tambo, Nelson Mandela and numerous other Black South Africans were being clamped down on hard by the regime in Apartheid South Africa, we here in Kenya were benefiting from massive funds pumped into Kenya by the very same people who were propping up Apartheid South Africa, and the same applies to neighbouring Tanzania e.g. Queen Elizabeth II of Britain made a State visit to Tanzania in 1979, at the height of the repression of Blacks in Apartheid South Africa.
At the height of repression in Apartheid South Africa also, high profile visits were made to Kenya by e.g. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy of America in June 1966. As a matter of fact, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy lands in Kenya from a trip to Apartheid South Africa, and then proceeds to meet President Jomo Kenyatta at State House Nairobi, where Sen. Robert F. Kennedy and President Jomo Kenyatta exchange pleasantries, and also “exchange gifts.”
The likes of Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu & Nelson Mandela were in prison at the time in Apartheid South Africa, so maybe one of the gifts given to President Jomo Kenyatta by Sen. Robert F. Kennedy was made in the Apartheid South Africa penitentiary system with the bare hands of e.g. Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu & Nelson Mandela.
And as Sen. Robert F. Kennedy and President Jomo Kenyatta dined on delicacies that evening the likes of Oliver Reginald Tambo were on the road in exile, on the run from the regime in Apartheid South Africa, so let us stop being hypocritical here in East Africa.
Julius Nyerere and Julius Nyerere’s Tanzania of the 1960s, the 1970s & the 1980s, remain the darlings of many Southern Africans, because of how Julius Nyerere’s Tanzania of the 1960s, the 1970s & the 1980s hosted and granted sanctuary to a number of African Liberation Movements at the time, such as the South West Africa Peoples Organisation (SWAPO) of Namibia, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) of Angola i.e. The People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola, Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (FRELIMO) of Mozambique i.e. The Mozambique Liberation Front, the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) of Zimbabwe, and the African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa. Julius Nyerere left office as Tanzanian President 34 years ago in November 1985 and passed away 20 years ago in October 1999, but there are still several people in the southern regions of Africa who hold Nyerere in high regard & high esteem, and as recently as the year 2014, immediate former Zimbabwean President, Robert Mugabe, showered glowing praise on Nyerere.
But there mentioned above is Julius Nyerere hosting Queen Elizabeth II in Tanzania in 1979, the same Queen Elizabeth II who was Head of State in Apartheid South Africa from 1952 to 1961. Elizabeth’s father i.e. King George VI, her uncle i.e. King Edward VIII, and her grandfather i.e. King George V, also served as South African Heads of State from 1910 to 1952.
The question therefore is this…? Was Julius Nyerere a two faced hypocrite…? If he was, then all we Kenyans, including Jomo Kenyatta, Daniel T. arap Moi, Mwai Kibaki and Uhuru Kenyatta, are no better because Queen Elizabeth II (then Princess Elizabeth) visited Kenya in 1952, and became Queen of the United Kingdom on Kenyan soil on the night of 5th February 1952 following the demise of her father King George VI, returning back to Kenya as British Monarch on two further subsequent visits i.e. in the years 1972 and 1983.
So when the likes of Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu & Nelson Mandela were in prison in Apartheid South Africa in 1972 and 1983, and when the likes of Oliver Reginald Tambo were on the run in exile in 1972 and 1983, we were laying out the red carpet for Queen Elizabeth II here in Kenya. Hypocrisy embodied, hypocrisy personified, is what it is on the part of all we Kenyans, and on the part also, of Julius Nyerere, and Julius Nyerere’s Tanganyika and Tanzania of 1961 to 1985.
And with the Americans, the Kenyan red carpet has been on permanent standby at Embakasi Airport and Jomo Kenyatta International Airport since 1968 i.e. in 1968 US Vice-President Hubert Humphrey visited Kenya, in 1971 US Vice-President Spiro Agnew visited Kenya, in 1982 US Vice-President George H.W. Bush visited Kenya, in 2010 US Vice-President Joe Biden visited Kenya, and in 2015 US President Barack Obama visited Kenya.
Further, in 1970 US Secretary of State William P. Rogers visited Kenya, in 1973 the then World Bank President, Robert McNamara, himself a former US Secretary of Defence from 1961 to 1968, visited Kenya to officiate at the first World Bank Conference to be held in Africa, in 1976 US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger visited Kenya, in 1976 also,US Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld visited Kenya, the first sitting US Secretary of Defence to visit Africa, in 1987 US Secretary of State George Shultz visited Kenya, in 1998 US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Kenya twice, in 2001 US Secretary of State Gen. Colin Powell visited Kenya, in 2008 US Secretary of State Dr. Condoleezza Rice visited Kenya, in 2009 and 2012 US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Kenya, in 2015 and 2016 US Secretary of State John Kerry visited Kenya, and in 2018 US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson visited Kenya.
High ranking British Government officials have also not been left behind i.e. six British Secretaries of State for the Colonies, in a row, visited Colonial Kenya and Newly Independent Kenya i.e. Jim Griffiths, Oliver Lyttelton, Alan Lennox-Boyd, Iain Macleod, Reginald Maulding and Duncan Sandys, followed by four British Prime Ministers i.e. then British Prime Minister Harold Wilson who visited Kenya in 1965, then British Prime Minister James Callaghan who visited Kenya in 1975, then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher who visited Kenya in 1988, and then British Prime Minister Theresa May who visited Kenya in 2018.
So, we here in East Africa i.e. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have all along been feting the Americans and the British, even during the reign and height of Apartheid South Africa from 1948 to 1994, so we cannot claim to “love” Nelson Mandela, whom we helped keep in prison in Apartheid South Africa from 1964 to 1990, as proxies of the Americans and the British, and at the same time claim to “hate” H.M. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Lady Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan.